Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer ranks the third place among the cancer types which have been seen worldwide coming after breast and bowel cancer among the women’s cancers. Cervical cancer is a gynecological cancer type coming into being at the part of the uterus which connects with the vagina. It is enormously important in cervical cancer that normal dysplasia could be detectable before cancer happens for full treatment of the disease.

The cells in the cervix reach to the pre-cancer stage by having transformation over time.  This stage is called precancerous. These very slowly progressing transformations may regress in some women even without the need for treatment in the course of the time.

How to Cervical Cancer Diagnosed?

  • In case of detection of suspicion lesion in cervix during gynecological examination,
  • In case of notice of rigidity during manual control of the structure which involves main ligaments holding uterus and which extends from both sides of the uterus to the bones,
  • In case of detection of cervical cancer precursors in pap smear test ,
  • In case of bleeding after sexual intercourse and bleeding between menstruations,

The patient must be evaluated in terms of cervical cancer definitely. If one of these symptoms is monitored, the following methods are applied.

  1. Pap smear: Colposcopy or Colposcopic biopsy must be carried out definitely in case of detection of ASC-H (Atypical Squamous Cells – High grade) or cancer symptoms in smear test.
  2. Cervical Biopsy: Biopsy must be carried out definitely in case of detection of suspicious symptoms in cervix during gynecological examination.
  3. Colposcopy: Colposcopy must be carried out definitely, if there is a problem with the smear. In case of detection of suspicious parts in Colposcopy, biopsies are taken from these parts.
  4. Imaging Methods: PET-CT and MR imaging which are used simultaneously are used as a guideline for the decision of surgery in patients with cervical cancer.

Cervical Cancer Phases

Phase 1: Cancer is local only with the cervix.

Phase 2: Cancer has spread to the upper part of the vagina in addition to the cervix but not spread to the tissues around the uterus.

Phase 3: Cancer has spread to the pelvic lateral walls and lower part of the vagina.

Phase 4: Cancer has spread to the adjacent organs such as urinary bladder, rectum or distant organs such as liver, bellows and bones.

 What Are the Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer?

– Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): The most important factor in the emergence of both types of cervix cancers. Most people who are infected with this virus do not have serious problems but cancer may occur in small group.

– Smoking: Cigarette is also among the risk factors for cervical cancer. Cigarette that disrupts the structure of cells struggling against the disease in the walls of the womb especially increases the possibility of getting squamous cell carcinoma.

– The weakening of the immune system: Immune system that is weakened by several reasons poses a risk also for cervical cancer as well as for different types of cancer. A healthy immune system means providing protection of healthy cells in addition to destruction of the abnormal developed as healthy cells.

– Lifestyle Features: Several points of sexual life activities, having more than one sex partner or having early age sexual activities may increase the risk of getting infected with the HPV virus.

Tags: cancer, Cervical Cancer, Gynaecology

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